The fourteenth century was the scene of rebirth Social,  political,

economic and cultural that, by storing the municipal experience, paved

the way for the Age of Lordships (Signorie) and allowed a few families

to share the control  the northern and central Italy.In Lombardia he settled the Viscount Bernabo’ whose nephew Gian Galeazzo, after having usurped and murdered, assumed the title of duke and expanded the boundaries to Pisa, Siena, Verona, e Bologna.

At his death in 1402, the Duchy, with the last of the Visconti Filippo Maria returned to the original boundaries.

In 1450, power passed to Capitano di Ventura Francesco Sforza,

 husband's of illegitimate daughter Biancamaria.
The new dynasty gave the start to: financial welfare, urban art, artistic development, and was represented by Count of Cotignola
Muzio Attendolo, of Duchi, Francesco I e                                                          

Galeazzo Maria Sforza,                                                                                          
Biancamaria Sforza Imperatrice del S.R.I                                                        

Giangaleazzo Maria Sforza ,                                                                                  
Bona Regina di Polonia e Duchessa di Bari,                                                     

Ludovico il Moro,                                                                                                    

Ercole Massimiliano e                                                                                           

Francesco II.                                                                                                            

Giacomo Attendolo                                                                                                 
Between Imola and Cesena, the village of Cotignola was
spectator of debut of Giacomuzzo Attendolo, born May 28, 1369,
by Giovanni and Elisa Petraccini;

Married in first marriage to Antonia Salimbeni of Siena, who bore him the

 son Bosio, in second, with Catherine di Napoli and third with Princess

Maria Marzana of Sessa; father seven children, including the beloved Francis, generated by Lucia Torsano, a further four males generated by Tamira Cagli and the other two were born in the third marriage.
Said Muzio Sforza and nicknamed by Alberico da Barbiano for

extraordinary physical puissance, with that name, transmitted to the whole family,he began driving the lordship of Milan until the fifteenth century, preserving the unity of the territory gained by Visconti.He has devoted

himself to military life, with Bartolo brothers, and cousins and Francesco Bosio Micheletto and Lorenzo, joined the
Compagnia di San Giorgio where learned the most sophisticated
techniques of war and, after first engagement of Francis Broglia,
got the first conducted by Perugia in 1398, against the Dukes of Milan.
But precisely Giangaleazzo Visconti, in tribute to his legendary exploits, doubled the its wage:it was a contract of short duration since intrigues
and rivalries carry Giacomo toward the soldo fiorentino,

still against Milano, projecting in experiences alternating and intense:
in June 1402 the defeat suffered in
Casalecchio from the old maestro Alberico da Barbiano; in 1404 the victory on Agnolo della Pergola and the subsequent occupation of Pisa and Castiglione della Pescaia;
the self-styled Lord of Parma Ottobuono Third, receiving in return the sovereignty of
Signoria di Montecchio, the triumphs of Ladislaus of Naples;
the success of 1412 next to Rossasecca
Luigi II di Angiò the expulsion
of Braccio da Montone from Rome in 1417.
The myth was strengthened in 1409 when, in the frame of the great religious and political turmoil caused by the presence of three popes, gave him a Florence intimidated by the incursions of
Braccio da Montone,

already master of great part of Umbria. However, his fame has been

scaled from the plague  that struck the the lives of three brothers.Soon, however, only, taken by Giovanni XXIII, after to have defeated
the king of Napoli in Roccasecca receives in return the

of Cotignola and never imagining that the that the Neapolitan

court it would have honored with the it gratifies for

Gran Connestabile del Regno.
The arrival of his sister,
Giovanna II to the throne confirmed the claim

of Giacomo, already a widower, raising a tide of envy that forced him

for ten years, to defend itself of the disputes and from the arrests,

 the first of which provided dall'ostile envious
and favorite of Queen
Alopo Pandolfo.The harsh reaction
of the militia, however, earned him the release,
an income of eight thousand ducats, theSignoria di
Benevento e

Manfredonia and the hand of the Princess Catherine.In coincidence

 of the wedding with Giacomo di Borbone, on 8 September 1415 he was arrested again: his men were rebelled up again in Tricarico, esigendone

the provisional release while an uprising of theNeapolitan barons they deprived the King of royal prerogatives.Reinstated in the office of

Gran Connestabile, Sforza expanded his feuds with lands in Calabria,

Cilento.Its ups and downs were far from concluded, when the feisty Giovanna took for lover Giovanni Caracciolo, Giacomo sided with the pretender
to the throne, Louis III and collided with the General of the Aragonese
troops Braccio da Montone.Giovanna was solemnly

crowned in Naples on 18 October 1419 in the
presence of Antonio and Giordano Colonna:

Gonfaloniere della Chiesa,
Giacomo began the expedition against to the pugnacious Leader of
Perugia where fortune smiled, in the bloody battle between

Montefiascone and Viterbo.The Caracciolo instrumentalized the route to demand the opposition of the monarch to calls
for assistance made by the Pope who, indignant, thanks to the mediation Florentine, concluded one agreement with
Braccio da Montone.
He entered a cheering Florence in February 1420 and swore allegiance to Martin V ceded Narni, Terni, Orvieto and Orte, changing the title of Vicar

of the Church and possession of Perugia, Todi, Assisi, Spoleto,

Spello and Jesi.
Then, on his orders, he marched against Antonio Galeazzo Bentivoglio, arbitrarily insignoritosi of Bologna of to January 26.The Primate

 went through the walls of Rome on 29 September 1420, ready at you revenged Giovanna:
The War of succession to the throne of Napoli was now open.
Giacomo Attendolo Sforza in field again with Louis III and began

to advance on Napoli.Pretending it as peacemaker, Martino V. invited

the two pretenders to the throne to peacefully resolve the controversy.
The Legato Antonio Caraffa said Malizia, perceived the intrigue,
it earned the support of Sovereign Alfonso of Aragon,
in retaliation, ordered obedience to the antipope Benedict XIII,
alarmed Luigi III it went to Roma in search of aid. By weakening

Angioino, already weakened from the changed relationship between Giovanna and Alfonso d’Aragona, Giacomo it made ​​peace with Braccio

da Montone, and with the news of death of the second wife, he married
Maria Marzana Sessa, took command of the papal troops and Angevin;

hired Jacopo Caldora, Bartolomeo Colleoni and his son Francis and

moved from Benevento to the Aquila to liquidate again the hostile

 Braccio da Montone and its allies  pro-Aragonese Gattamelata Erasmo

 and Niccolò Piccinino.
In late December of 1423 proceeded to the ford of Pescara,
but on January 3, when his armor-bearer was overwhelmed
by the water in full, without hesitation he dived to save him and ended

his life by drowning generous. His body was never found.

Born illegitimate son of Lucia Terziani 23 July 1401 in

 San Miniato, and recognized with the other brothers for a special grant of Queen Joan, Francesco spent part of childhood in the lordship of
Ferrara underneath Niccolo d'Este and one parte to the
Tricarico , to eleven years old was appointed Conte after to be armed
Cavaliere On 23 October 1418 married Rossano Calabro Pollissena de Mailly Ruffo di Calabria, widow of Giacomo de Mailly French landowner:

she dead two years after  the wedding, with baby Antonia.
Rival of his father, contracted his first experience in the field fighting

alongside his father at age twelve and exhibiting the qualities of a soldier

bold and powerful in 1419 in  Viterbo freed the parent from the encirclement tesogli by Braccio da Montone ;
in 1420 it occupied with the Acerra uncle Micheletto
and participated in the campaign against the Queen Giovanna,

 remaining wounded in the same year he went as viceroy in Calabria,

 in the lands inherited by his wife,shown great political talent in Cosenza

 in 1421 and led the defense of Luigi III d’Angiò, after the victory at the Aquila,

finally, was in the service of Martino V to crush the aspirations of the Signore di Foligno Corrado Trinci.He returned to Napoli after the father's death, marched against Naples, which won for Giovanna after bribing the Governatore Caldora Jacopo, whose daughter he married. With him he
took the Aquila and knownsame period, the Captain of  Ventura

Guido Torelli who credited to Filippomaria Visconti of Milan in 1425 he accepted the conduct Niccolò Piccinino fighting against Carmarthen.
After various events, and especially after the defeats in
Maclodio and Brescia in 1427, fell into an ambush and
saved by the providential intervention of the Lady of
Ronco Eliana Spinola, fell into disgrace in the eyes of the Duke
relegated to Mortara with reduced pay.He returned in vogue in 1431,
Piccinino against Venice and defeating it it to Soncino with

obtaining of the consideration of the Visconti,who offered him the
hand of his daughter
Biancamaria, empowered with imperial privilege. Obtained the cancellation of previous constraint, February 23, 1432
Francis entered into the new marriage contract.
The event followed the attacks to the State Church between

1433 and 1435, in a succession of unscrupulous alliances that saw first,

 to fight for in the Marca di Ancona for the future father and then Vicar of Eugene IV,from which he was promoted Gonfaloniere della Chiesa,
while Alfonso of Aragon, it confiscated the assets in the
Kingdom of Naples attracted him away from the
North and South Italy. In February of 1441 Piccinino camped
the rights on the Lordship of Piacenza:Francesco was hired by Visconti,

 who, after long hesitation, 25 October finally broughtofficiate at the wedding with his daughter in the church of San Sigismondo in Cremona.Soon after,
aiming to regain its territories in the South, he adhered to the

demands of Rene d'Anjou and marchedricevendosi excommunication against the Aragonese and the revocation of the standard-bearer.
The defeat of
Antonio Caldora and Angioini in the Marca di Ancona and Venezia, provoked Firenze to support Sforza, in order to stem the

expansion of Alfonso. The bonus was 8 November 1443 when it

defeated Sigismondo Malatesta Piccinino and the
new war between Venice and Ducato ended with the military success

of Micheletto Attendolo on the Po : Francesco was appointed

Captano General di Milano.
It was the last act signed by Filippo Maria Visconti, who died

 August 13, 1447 while his son moved from the Marches towards Lombardy, where the established Ambrosian Republic would solve the issue
of succession by offering the general command, while Pavia and Parma claimed their autonomy and Lodi and Piacenza
they went to the Venetians . Defeats on September 14, 1448 in the zone of Caravaggio the militias Veneto, on the sidelines
of the victorious battle fluvial of the previous July to Casalmaggiore,

where the navy of Venice had suffered a crushing humiliation by guided
by the noble Ducale of Pavia Pasino of Eustachi,
Francesco entered into personal negotiations with the Republic marinara.
On October 14 to Rivoltella signed the peace treaty, pledging to evacuate

 the territories of Bergamo and Brescia to renounce to Crema and Ghiara d'Adda acquiring,  by contrast, the control of Lodi, Brivio and Lecco and the rest against the

Aurea Repubblica Ambrosiana Autonoma.
Led by Trivulzio, by Cotta, by Lampugnani and a number of

 merchants willing to support the utopian setting up to put a bounty on the head of the Sforza of two hundred thousand ducats,
The Milanese rose. Lacking alternatives, in 1449 with an action
of force he occupied the area between the Adda and theTicino
and blocked access roads to the capital while the disrespectful terms,

Venice abandoned the alliance to favor of the Republic.
The siege of the city Francis kept in check for eight months until the lack

of supplies crumbled to resistance front: for hungry,
the people turned away from the aristocracy and opened
the doors for to long period of unexpected prosperity.
Sforza entered Milan on March 22, 1450 with his wife and son as the new Duca was offered the scepter, the banner with the serpent of Visconti family

and the imperial eagle, the seal, the sword and the keys.concluded the distinguished career of Leader, began to Prince who for sixteen years he would prudently governed the fate of the most prestigious European duchy. Immediately faced with the urgent issues by appointing
new judges and magistrates; modernizing the State; equipping
of new churches, castles and buildings, establishing therein an efficient tax system, increasing revenue, king his Court prestigious artistic

and intellectual center, improving the road network, ordering the construction of the first hospital and entrusting the execution to the greatest architect

of the time of the Tuscan Antonio Averlino said Filarete; gaining popularity
among his subjects and international credibility, such as exemplary incarnation of Machiavelli's Il Principe. In January of 1452 he obtained
the imperial investiture and, to tighten alliance with Cosimo de 'Medici,

 urged Rene d'Anjou against the Aragonese in the Kingdom of Naples; reopened hostilities with the Venetians who had betrayed him in
his time and used the formidable powers of
Bartolomeo Colleoni to

tackle even Luigi Gonzaga.
The truce supervening May 29, 1453 in parallel to the fall of
Constantinople in Turkish hands.
The event of the Pope against the Holy League, which joined Florence
and Venice: Francesco, whose troops were already in battle
array in the region of Veneto, has accepted the peace on
April 9, 1454 in Lodi the Venetians they obtained consent for the recovery of secret castles conquered by the Duke of Savoy and the Marquis of Monferrato. In 1461, it supported Genova in opposition to the French government, while another battle Kingdom of Naples between Aragon and Anjou was completed in 1462,  with the victory of Ferdinand of Aragon in Sarno. In 1464, had from Louis XI, the French fiefs of Genoa and Savona, married the daughter of the French king Ippolita and put his hand in the work of Naviglio della Martesana; restored the palace dell'Arrengo,

 reconstruction of the Porta Giovia,ordered the reconstruction
of the port, which is crucial for the defense of the walls.

He died March 8, 1466: the whole, but remained strong heritage to their children Galeazzo Maria, Filippo Maria, Maria Sforza, Ludovico, Ottaviano, Ascanio, Ippolita, Elisabetta.

     Galeazzo Maria      
At the news of his birth, the Pope who hated his father succinctly stated:

Was born ... another ... Lucifer: in fact cunning, cruel, dissolute,

 ambitious, corrupt, vain and greedy; son of the Francis and
Biancamaria Visconti
was born in Fermo January 24th of 1444 and died Dec. 26 of 1476,

engaged to the daughter of the Marquis of Gonzaga, and then married Bona of Savoy, sister of Louis XI of France, was given the name from his
maternal grandfather Filippo Maria, who honored his father and his vow to Mary for entering the continuity of his lineage the young Sforza . When he heard his father's death, was in France to fight the Great Vassals in favor of the brother in law that proclaimed champion of the Piedmont,
was trying to wedge in the affairs of Northern Italian states aiming

to extend its influence over Lombardy.
He returned to Milan on 20 March 1466 and, after a short
phase of cogoverno, relegated his mother to Cremona.
Along the way, to October 23 next year, she Melegnano it died poisoned,
the death was ascribed to his son, worried by the risk that it could
yield to the Venetians the city.
At the time of birth of the first Giangaleazzo, he introduced
in Milan on il
a coin of silver weighing about ten grams with the effigy of his profile.

At that time, favored the affirmation of Councillor Francis said Cicco Simonetta, to which granting privileges it they insulted the court and

Milan Milan, burdened with onerous taxes, diverted from processes; by unspeakable tortures and executions; unacceptable
injustices. In fact, he squandered the fortunes of the State enriching

 Marliani Lucia's lover; expenses in 1472 a fortune to celebrate the

betrothal of his son as a child with the Duchess Isabella of Calabria; in 1473 gave lavish parties in honor of Cardinal Pietro Riario, in March of 1474 greeted with unprecedented magnificence of the King Matthias Corvinus

 of Hungary, which gave ten thousand sequins; squandered money
on travel, The most contentious of which was that of 1471, which cost
over two hundred thousand florins to go with Duchess in Florence, Lucca

 and Genoa, where he ordered the construction of ramparts that divide

 the city into two parts, each guarded by an armed garrison.
The initiative was thus interpreted by Lazzaro Doria as a clear violation

of the agreements between the Republic and the Duchy: the crowd rose,
forcing the Governor to close Guido Visconti in his palace while Galeazzo

 it sent armed units and it made to arrest the notable Prospero Adorno
then receding from hostile intentions, fearing the reaction of the
Duca Girolamo Gentile. Too late: he led the revolt in June 1476, the representative of the Milanese government it decreed penalty by giving

seven hundred ducats to Gentile, trinceratosi with a
small band of loyalists to Porta San Tommaso and willing
to negotiate their surrender. In those days the Duke's attention it

 was directed to the Piedmont, and Ferrara, the scene of events
in which he was involved:
against Hercules I d'Este had secretly incited Niccolò,
son of Lionel, who was to Mantova for an opportunity to to

become lord of Ferrara.
The occasion matured on first September , when, taking advantage

 absence of his uncle, he entered the city at the
head of five hundred Armed People, not thinking the people it around to Sigismund, brother of the Duke, and forced him to flee:
seized by peasants trying to return to Mantova, was brought
back to Ferrara and beheaded. In Piedmont, however,

30 March 1472 it dead Amedeo IX of Savoy, leaving the eldest heir
Filiberto, counting only eight years, was placed under the
regency of his mother Yolanda, sister of Louis XI of France.
She had marched against the Duca of Burgundy
il Temerario
before he had had as an ally in an ill-fated
war against the Helvetii and then defeated by them
at Murten in June 1476, had stopped. The Sovereign,
who was at the refugee the young heir, sent reinforcements to the

aid of germana Galeazzo Maria defeated of St Germain,
Charles retreated to the Alps to resume militaryoperations in the spring.

But it was already in place a ramified conspiracy
stimulated by its French King against the Sforza:
after ten years or so of questionable government,
on December 26 of that year in the Milanese church of St. Stephen,
where he was praying, he fell under the
blows of a dagger of the Giovanni Andrea Lampugnani,
Girolamo and Carlo Visconti Olgiati. He had stained the family
honor of the first and robbed of most of the other
two shareholders. However, while his dead body ended up in the
arms of the Legacies of Mantova and Ferrara,
Lampugnani was killed; Olgiati managed to escape but was captured

 and sentenced to death: Carlo Visconti was quartered.

Galeazzo Maria left numerous offspring: Bona his wife,

 sons Gian Galeazzo Maria, Maria Hermes; Biancamaria,

 wife of Emperor Maximilian of Hapsburg, Annamaria,
married to Alfonso I d'Este.
Landriani Lucrezia, sons Carlo, Chiara and Caterina
La minorità di Giangaleazzo Maria
The powerful Minister Simonetta Francis it entrusted the regency to his mother, Duchess Bona, assisted by aCouncil of State, with headquarters in the castle and a Council of Justice, located in the ducal palace.
To reassure the public, immediately abolished the taxes and it made to distribute the grain, irritateing the brothers of the deceased:
Maria Sforza, Octavian, Philip, Ascanio and Ludovico il Moro

 in particular.To redress the tensions, in February of 1477 he went to

Milan Ludovico Gonzaga and reconciled to the Duchesswith in-laws.In

Milan, peace returned, but in March following erupted in Genova where

the Fieschi and Campofregoso stirred up a revolt that forced

Governor Duca Giovanni Francesco Pallavicini. to re-establishthe order,

the energetic Simonetta ordered the release of
Prospero Adorno,been arrested in 1471 by Galeazzo Maria,
and gave him command of the troops intended to help Pallavicini.
In return demanded the restoration of authority within the limits assigned
by the Duca
Trattato di Dedizione to Francesco Sforza.Adorno it

accepted, to the head of twelve thousand men, 30 April 1477
it occupied Genoa promised amnesty to rebels who had laid
down their arms, assumed the office of Governor, besieged the

 headquarters of the Fieschi forcing them to surrender them and

 returned to Milan. The Ducato meanwhile was permeated by an

atmosphere of intrigue and poisons that harm the Minister,
in the face of allegations by
Ludovico Maria Sforza,
and the government of the regent, ordered the capture of their abettors Roberto Sanseverino, Donato del Conte and Ibletto Fieschi.
The measure degenerated into a riot: conquered Porta Tosa, the rebels crossed the city with the slogan Death to the strangers, alluding to the extraction of the Calabrian Simonetta.
But they were isolated: Ludovico it confined in Pisa,
Maria Sforza died, possibly poisoned in Varese Ligure,
Ottaviano it drowns to the fording of the Adda river,

 Ascanio was relegated to Perugia, the only Philip stayed in Milan for extraneous to the facts; Donato del Conte died from injuries sustained

 during his escape from prison in Monza; Ibletto Fieschi was arrested

 to the border Asti, Roberto Sanseverino succeeded in placing himself

 under the protection of the French crown.
He was again peace: April 24, 1478, Giangaleazzo the nine-year

was formally invested with the ducal title in the Cattedrale of Milan.
Two days after the outbreak of the, Congiura de'Pazzi, in Florence,

 causing the formation of two alloys: one between
"Ferdinand of Naples and the Pope" and the other from
"Milan and Florence." Urged by Maria Sforza,
the ruler of Naples, encouraged the rebellion of
Prospero Adorno that Bona made it repudiated,
but on June 25, 1478, the violent reaction exploded and proclaimed

himself Doge against the Doria and Spinola, unrelated to the coup.

 In its support from Asti they arrived troops
of Roberto Sanseverino, while seven galleys of Napoli with Luigi Campofregoso they headed for of Genoa.
commant from Sforzino , the natural son of Duca Francesco,
to the Sforzeschi faced the Sanseverino to the August 7,
and suffered heavy losses, after seven hours of fighting they withdrew.
The the defeat persuaded the Duchessof the inability to recover

Genoa with weapons, so she resorted o the strategy of making

 concessions t to the opposition faction of the Baptist Campofregoso son

of Pietro. it prevailed sull'Adorno and in November kicked him
out of the city with Sanseverino. But the overthrow of
Prospero did not help the Milanese, because Campofregoso it was

elected Doge. In parallel, Sisto IV pitted against the
Duchy of the Helvetii of the Canton of Uri,
in November of 1478, they penetrated to Bellinzona and then leave

 without having been able to conquer. Against them, then,
the army marched in Milan guided by Marsilio Torelli, severely beaten.

The war had ended. Thanks to the skill of Cicco Simonetta was peace

 with the Helvetii.
But another spark was ready to rekindle the fires of discord:
Sanseverino and the Sforza brothers were about to invade Milan from Borgotaro not to defeat Bona, but to liquidate his powerful Minister.

On 27 July 1479 came the death of Maria Sforza:
about a month later, Louis took control of Tortona in the
name of the sister and nephew, and between arms and intrigues,

 he used the Tassino Antonio Ferrara, favorite of Bona and enemy of Simonetta,  a fictitious simulation for reconciliation so that
the latter said to the Duchess:
I lose my head, but you lose the state.
Not wrong! On 7 September 1480, Ludovico entered Milan
and it made the oath of allegiance to the young Duca, but four days later,

 the arrest of the Minister and his son Antonio,
his brother Giovanni and other family members, took the reins to the government, separated the mother's nephew, and the mother transferred

to Abbiate , when it was deemed safe, got rid of all potential enemies.

On October 7, confiscated goods, exiled Tassino Antonio and his father Gabriele; asked Simonetta, locked up in prisons Pavia,

 forty thousand florins in exchange for the release and,
in the face of steadfast refusal, had him beheaded of the 30 the next.

The wife of the minister: a Visconti, went mad.
The race to the Duchy did not present more obstacles:
in effect become governor of Milan, Ludovico in 1489 to
Gian Galeazzo Maria, stared at her marriage to Isabella of Aragon,
nephew of the King of Naples Ferdinand I and daughter
of Alfonso of Calabria. From this marriage were born Hippolyta,

Francis and Bona. Ludovico il Moro
Fourth son of Francesco Sforza and Biancamaria Visconti,
Duke of Bari since 1479;
Count to Mortara and Pavia; Duca of Milan from 1494 to 1500,
was born in Vigevano 27 July 1452, died at Loches, May 27, 1508,

Ludovico moved adroitly between alliances
and betrayals, and, taking advantage of the rivalry between the various

Italian states, Milan became dominant on the national political arena.
Fearing the power of neighboring Venice, opened relations
Lorenzo il Magnifico, with Ferdinand I, of Naples and Pope Borgia
and supported the rights of his niece
Caterina Riario Sforza,
Lady of Imola and Forli.
In 1491 he married
Beatrice, daughter of Ercole I d'Este: he had sons Maximilian and Francesco during of aura phase dominated by the

 presence in the ducal court of Leonardo, Bramante and various Artists

and Writers, by runningmany works civil engineering and military and economic recovery.
Ultimately, Duca Gian Galeazzo was only
de jure,
when the wife he pretensions commitment even
de facto,
Il Moro to tightened an alliance with the Emperor Maximilian I:
that it married his niece
Bianca Maria with the clear purpose of having of support in Italy and,  with the outlay of a large sum,
to recognize the legitimacy of the license legitimizing the usurpation.
In 1492, meanwhile, for take over permanently della Signoria to contain

 the expansionist impulses of Venice and to curb the hostility of the Neapolitan Aragonese related with their nephew, Ludovico sodalizzò

even with sovereign of France, Charles VIII, and for him, with his sister
Anne of Beaujeu guardian.
Statesman sensitive and attentive, until you feel that under the aegis of

Milan Italy could find a single identity, eventually turning to the cousins of beyond Alps ​​begged a risk but it paved the way for a greedy imperialism of foreign!
The consequences of the initiative proved to be dramatic.!
Charles VIII crossed the Alps on 12 September 1494:

it was the first invaders of the Modern Age. If for Ludovico was the

 end for Italy was the beginning of four centuries of domination.
On October 21, 1494 Gian Galeazzo died two days later,

solemn fanfare announcing the proclamation to his uncle the

Duke of Milan.In the previous January, meanwhile, it died Ferdinand of Naples, ascended to the throne Alfonso that, as father of the
wife of the deceased, had claimed rights to the Duchy irritating the

French crown,in turn related to Valentina Visconti and, therefore,

pretender to the same title.Without hesitation, proclaimed King of Naples

and Duke of Milan, Charles VIII entered to the Piemonte with the consent to

Savoia di Monferrato and pretended to accept the Lordship of the Moro

still in its in its possession, it placed put traps and pitfalls along the

 way with Tuscany, destabilized to the position of Piero de 'Medici,

 replaced by the republican regime influenced by Girolamo Savonarola,
occupied Rome on December 31, 1494, induced the
Pope fled to Castel Sant'Angelo, Naples taken at the
beginning of the following year.Against him was formed a
coalition composed by Alexander VI, the Hapsburgs, Spain,

Venice andfrom Milan in an attempt to spezzarne hegemony,
but he, fearing to remain trapped in southern peninsularmoved northward,

 met Louis in Vercelli, persuaded him to support it.
The Duca left the League and signed the agreement with France.
Carlo died in 1498: he was succeeded by his cousin Louis of Orleans,

which claimed the legacy of Valentina Visconti,
interventionist policy and resumed hostilities against Milan in 1499 by

signing two agreements ambiguous: Il Trattato di Marcoussins
with Ferdinand the Catholic, to divide the kingdom of
Naples their relatives and the
Trattato di Blois with Venice to divide the Lombard Duchy These circumstances
were exacerbated by the passage of the Pope in the party of the French

and Aragon to Castile.
In August, the army of Louis XII it entered in Itaia
and from Genoa it headed at Milan after Having sacked Pavia.
In the face of the supervision exercised by the Venetians and the

 Pisans aware of not being able to conquer the city Toscana Ludovico overthrew the alliance with Venice and Florence it supported the

 reconquest of Pisa to counting of the support anti-French.
It was late and the move fatally wrong: the rival is allied with Venice,

seeking revenge for theabout-face while the
Milanese rose up against oppression tax.
After the same Venetian occupation of Lodi and Cremona,

Il Moro he repaired to Germany to Maximilian of Hapsburg.
The following year he returned to the Duchy with Swiss militia
and drove the enemy beyond the Ticinobut was betrayed,

captured 10 April 1500 in Novara, moved to France where
he died after eight years of imprisonment.
Louis XII and Ferdinand the Catholic, meanwhile, with the
Treaty of Granada of November 2 in 1500 they divided Italy triggering

five decades of wars ended February 24 of 1525 when, after the
Battle of Pavia, took turns on and off the Spanish Bourbons and the
Habsburgs until Carlo V, crowned in Bologna February 24, 1530,
took control of the entire peninsula.
Since then, the heirs of the Sforza retained only the title, since

in fact the Duchy was ruled by foreigners: Milan had been ceded to the

French after the Battle of Marignano of 13 September 1515 and,

on the other hand, within two decades the male line of the Dukes of the powerful successor to the Visconti dynasty would die out.
You come from a family ... that governs Ferrara for two hundred years.

My father's father was born in a tiny village of Romagna
and never learned to make his signature.
He was a shoemaker's apprentice who became the greatest
leader of his time ....
So Ludovico il Moro had spoken proudly to yor wife Beatrice
of his grandfather Giacomo Attendolo Sforza and ancestors who had

pushed their power to Bari But he himself had lowered the lights on the dynasty, wreaking havoc on Italy and its dukedom which had also been

 able survive the pressures of the emerging powers.
Helpless keeper of the grandeur of a Court impostasi in the intellectual ferment among the most enlightened of Europe,
even amid the lights and shadows that accompanied the path
of the family, Milan was delivered to the French and the Spanish political decline, social, economic and cultural.



He was born as
Giacomo or Jacopo Attendolo in Cotignola (Romagna) to a rich family of rural nobility.
Muzzo or Muzio was the short form of the nickname of Giacomuzzo. According to tradition, young
Giacomo was plowing a field when a platoon of mercenaries
led by Boldrino da Panicale passed nearby in search of recruits.
He then stole one his father's horses and followed
the soldiers to follow the same career.



Alessandro Sforza

(Cotignola, 21 October 1409 - 3 April 1473)
It 'been a leader Italian, brother of Francesco Sforza, Lord of Pesaro Pesaro branch and founder of the Sforza dynasty.
Alessandro Sforza was the illegitimate son of
Muzio Sforza Attendolo and Lucia Terziani from Marsciano.
Alexander was always on the side and under the orders of his brother Francis for the conquest of new dominions, from Milan to Venice from Alexandria

to Pesaro. In 1442 Assisi was in command of the besieged troops
Pope Eugene IV controlled by Perugia Niccolò Piccinino, one of the greatest captains of the time,
and Cardinal Nicholas of Cusa.

Alessandro Sforza was forced
to retire in the Rocca Maggiore, leaving the city to looters who did not spare the
Basilica of St. Francis and Santa Chiara
.In 1445 he was given the lordship of Pesaro by
Galeazzo Malatesta.
Alessandro Sforza first (Lord from 1445 to '73)
extended the abode of Lord to adapt it to the needs of a modern Renaissance court.
Military engagements called him in the war of Lombardy to support his brother Francis;
in 1448 took part in the Battle of Caravaggio.
Presided over Parma and in February of the following year made himself master of the city.
He fought with his brother in the conquest of the
Duchy of Milan, possession then conferred on him by the Peace of Lodi in 1454.
In 1464 Pope Pius II gave him the lordship of Gradara, despite numerous attempts by Malatesta,
were lords of Rimini, to take over the castle again.
He died in 1473 in apoplexy.
The December 8, 1444 he married Constance da Varano (1428-1447), daughter of Peter the Gentile da Varano. By Constance had:
Battista (1446-1472) who became the wife of
Federico da Montefeltro, Duke of Urbino
Constantius I (1447-1483), who married Camilla d'Aragona
(grandson of Ferdinand I of Aragon).
Constance died in childbirth giving birth to her second child.
On January 9, 1448 he married by proxy to the Countess Sveva Feltria Sforza (1434-1478):
met only on 1 September.
From Sveva had no children.
Given the prolonged absence for the wars,
Swabian State had to deal with in Pesaro
and education of Baptist and Costanzo stepchildren,
children of the first marriage.
Alessandro Sforza, away from home for a long time,
believed the rumors of a possible conspiracy
by his wife to entrust again the lordship of Pesaro to Malatesta.
Sveva then forced to enter the Poor Clare Convent of Corpus Christi Monastery in Pesaro,
where, after having obtained the necessary dispensation from Pope Callistus III,
made his religious profession at the end of August 1457, taking the name Sister Serafina
(Was beatified by Pope Benedict XIV July 17, 1754).
Alexander had an illegitimate daughter,
Ginevra Sforza (1452-1507) who first married
Sante Bentivoglio and his death three years later,
his cousin Giovanni II Bentivoglio, Lord of Bologna.
He was succeeded by his son Constantius and his wife Camilla of Aragon and his son John,
whom he married in 1493, Lucrezia Borgia.


Bianca Maria Sforza


(Pavia, April 5, 1472 )

(Innsbruck, 31 December1510)
was the second daughter of Duke
of Milan and Bona of Savoy.


  Biancamaria  Visconti

Bianca Maria Visconti
(Settimo Pavese, March 31, 1425 - Melegnano
23 or 28 October 1468) was the legitimate daughter of Filippo Maria Visconti, Duke of Milan,
Was the wife of Francesco Sforza and

Duchess of Milan
1450 to 1468.


 Francesco Sforza


llegitimate son of Muzio Sforza and Attendolo

Lucia Terziani from Marsciano,
Francis spent his childhood in Florence
and at the court of Ferrara Niccolò III d'Este.
Then he followed his father to Naples where, at the age of eleven years (December 1412), was created Earl of Tricarico by King Ladislas of Naples and then dubbed a knight.
He married Polyxena Ruffo, a noble branch of the
Calabrian Montalto and widow of

James de Mailly French knight who owned much land especially in Cosenza.

     Il Testone         

  Moneta  introdotta da  Galeazzo  Maria  


 Galeazzo  Maria Sforza

Galeazzo Maria Sforza
(January 24, 1444–assassinated,

December 26, 1476)
was Duke of Milan from 1466 until his death.
He was famous for being lustful,
cruel and tyrannical.
He was born to Francesco Sforza, a popular condottiero and ally of Cosimo de' Medici who had gained the Duchy of Milan, and Bianca Maria Visconti. He married into the Gonzaga family; on the death of his first wife Dorotea Gonzaga, he married Bona of Savoy.



Agnese del Maino

Agnese del Maino (... - Milan, 13 December 1465)
was a Milanese nobleman. She was the daughter of
Ambrogio del Maino, Count Palatine and Duke quaestor.
His brothers were Andreotto Lancelot and courtiers
and members of the Duke.
Duke was a lover of the mistress of the Duke of Milan, Filippo Maria Visconti, who bore him two daughters:
Bianca Maria Visconti (1425-1468), last Visconti of Milan and the wife of Francesco Sforza, the
first Duke of the Sforza duchy of Milan.
Mary Catherine,

who died a few days after birth (1426).
Filippo Maria was married twice,
with Beatrice Lascaris daughter
of the Count of Tende and Maria of Savoy,
but both wives had no children. For this reason,
the Duke asked the Emperor Sigismund of
Luxembourg to recognize as his heir, the illegitimate daughter Bianca Maria. In 1431
mother and daughter were staying in the castle made ​​of Be, the current Abbiategrasso.
Here Filippo Maria had given orders to prepare an apartment where the little White could grow with
her mother.

Ferdinando d'Aragona

Ferdinand of Aragon, Naples branch,

 better known as
Ferrante and I also told Don Ferrando
(Valencia, June 2, 1423 - Naples,

January 28, 1494),
was the only male child, illegitimate, of
Alfonso I of Naples, was king of Naples from
1458 to 1494.
The mother, Gueraldona Carlino, was
probably a woman from Naples, in
December of 1422 he accompanied
Alfonso on his return to Spain,
where he married such a Gaspar Reverdit Barcelona

Filippo Maria Visconti

Filippo Maria Visconti,
(September 23, 1392 - August 13, 1447)
was the last Visconti Duke to
hold the Duchy of Milan.

Eleonora d'Aragona

Eleonora of Aragon, Duchess of Ferrara, Modena and Reggio (Naples, 22 or June 23, 1450 - Ferrara,
October 12, 1493), daughter of Ferdinand I was King of Naples from 1458 to 1494 and Isabella
Chiaromonte daughter of the Prince of Taranto and the grandson of Maria d'Enghien,
Queen of Naples.
Biography [edit] It was therefore the sister of Alfonso II of Naples,
Frederick I of Naples and Beatrice of Aragon, Queen of Hungary and wife of King Matthias Corvinus
of Hungary and then to Ladislaus II of Bohemia.
He had, it seems, a relationship with the young Count Diego I Cavaniglia Montella
He married in 1471 Duke Ercole I d'Este of Ferrara

Ercole I d'Este

Ercole I d'Este (26 October 1431 – 15 June 1505)
was Duke of Ferrara from 1471 until 1505.
He was a member of the house of Este.
He was nicknamed North Wind and the Diamond.
Ercole was born at Ferrara to Nicolò III and Ricciarda
da Saluzzo. His maternal grandparents were Thomas III of Saluzzo and Marguerite of Roussy.
He was educated at the Neapolitan court of Alfonso,
king of Aragon and Naples, from 1445 to 1460;
there he studied military arts, chivalry, and acquired the appreciation for architecture all'antica and the fine arts, which would result in his becoming
one of the most significant art patrons of the
In 1471, with the support of the Republic of Venice,
he became Duke on the death of his half-brother Borso, profiting of the absence of the latter's son,
Niccolò, who was in Mantova.
During an absence of Ercole from Ferrara, Niccolò attempted a coup,
which was however crushed; Niccolò and his cousin
Azzo were beheaded on September 4, 1476. Ercole married Eleonora d'Aragona, daughter of Ferdinand I of Naples, in 1473. The Este alliance with Naples was to prove a powerful one.



    Ercole Massimiliano

Maximilian (Massimiliano) Sforza
(1493–1530) was a Duke
of Milan from the Sforza family, the son of
Lodovico Maria Sforza.
He ruled between the occupations
of Louis XII of France
(1500–1513), and Francis I of France in 1515.

 He was imprisoned by the returning French following their victory at the Battle of Marignano.
Proposed Marriage for Massimiliano
When he was three his father tried to arrange a marriage between him and Mary Tudor, the younger daughter of King Henry VII of England. However Henry VII rejected a marriage proposal as Massimiliano's father was hoping that Henry would help him against the French. Henry was only interested in peace not war after founding his new dynasty from the War of the


 Albero genealogico di tre generazioni di Massimiliano Sforza



Ludovico Sforza

Nonno paterno:
Francesco I Sforza

Bisnonno paterno:
Muzio Attendolo

Bisnonna paterna:
Lucia da Torsano

Nonna paterna:
Bianca Maria Visconti

Bisnonno paterno:
Filippo Maria Visconti

Bisnonna paterna:
Agnese del Maino

Beatrice d'Este
Nonno materno:
Ercole I d'Este
Bisnonno materno:
Niccolò III d'Este
Bisnonna materna:
Ricciarda di Saluzzo
Nonna materna:
Eleonora d'Aragona
Bisnonno materno:
Ferdinando I di Napoli
Bisnonna materna:
Isabella di Taranto

  Ludovico Maria Sforza 

Ludovico Maria Sforza said the Moor
(Vigevano, July 27, 1452 - Loches, 27 May 1508)
was the Duke of Bari since 1479,
later Duke of Milan from 1480 to 1499.


Beatrice d'Este (June 29, 1475 – January 3, 1497),
duchess of Bari and later of Milan,
was the wife of the Milanese ruler Ludovico Sforza
(known as "il Moro"). She was one of the most beautiful and accomplished princesses of the Italian Renaissance.
A member of the Este family, she was the younger daughter of Ercole I d'Este and the sister of Isabella d'Este and Alfonso d'Este. Along with her sister,
Beatrice was noted for her excellent taste in fashion and for having invented new clothing styles.
MarriageThe Ferrarese house of Este and the Milanese house
of Sforza had always been on friendly terms and

in 1480, in order to cement an alliance, Ludovico Sforza formally asked Ercole d'Este to give him the hand of his daughter in marriage. Ludovico, who was then duke of Bari and regent to the duke of Milan, had originally requested a betrothal to Isabella, Beatrice's older sister, but because she was already promised to Francesco Gonzaga, Ercole offered him Beatrice instead.Il Moro made no objection to the arrangement and Beatrice was married to him in January 1491.

Monumento tombale vuoto sito nella
 Certosa di Pavia
di Ludovico Sforza detto il Moro e della
moglie Beatrice D'Este