|PERSONAGGI E SIGNORIE||CAVAGLI|
The fourteenth century was the scene of rebirth Social, political,
economic and cultural that, by storing the municipal experience, paved
the way for the Age of Lordships (Signorie) and allowed a few families
to share the control the northern and central Italy.In Lombardia he settled the Viscount Bernabo’ whose nephew Gian Galeazzo, after having usurped and murdered, assumed the title of duke and expanded the boundaries to Pisa, Siena, Verona, e Bologna.
At his death in 1402, the Duchy, with the last of the Visconti Filippo Maria returned to the original boundaries.
In 1450, power passed to Capitano di Ventura Francesco Sforza,
husband's of illegitimate
Giangaleazzo Maria Sforza ,
Married in first marriage to Antonia Salimbeni of Siena, who bore him the
son Bosio, in second, with Catherine di Napoli and third with Princess
Maria Marzana of Sessa;
father seven children, including the beloved Francis, generated by Lucia
Torsano, a further four males generated by Tamira Cagli and the other
two were born in the third marriage.
extraordinary physical puissance, with that name, transmitted to the whole family,he began driving the lordship of Milan until the fifteenth century, preserving the unity of the territory gained by Visconti.He has devoted
himself to military life, with
Bartolo brothers, and cousins and Francesco Bosio Micheletto and Lorenzo,
still against Milano, projecting in
experiences alternating and intense:
already master of great part of Umbria. However, his fame has been
scaled from the plague that
struck the the lives of three brothers.Soon, however, only, taken by
Giovanni XXIII, after to have defeated
of Cotignola and never imagining that the that the Neapolitan
court it would have honored with the it gratifies for
Gran Connestabile del Regno.
of Giacomo, already a widower, raising a tide of envy that forced him
for ten years, to defend itself of the disputes and from the arrests,
the first of which provided
Manfredonia and the hand of the Princess Catherine.In coincidence
of the wedding with Giacomo di Borbone, on 8 September 1415 he was arrested again: his men were rebelled up again in Tricarico, esigendone
the provisional release while an uprising of theNeapolitan barons they deprived the King of royal prerogatives.Reinstated in the office of
Gran Connestabile, Sforza expanded his feuds with lands in Calabria,
Cilento.Its ups and downs were far
from concluded, when the feisty Giovanna took for lover Giovanni
Caracciolo, Giacomo sided with the pretender
crowned in Naples on 18 October 1419
Gonfaloniere della Chiesa,
Montefiascone and Viterbo.The
Caracciolo instrumentalized the route to demand the opposition of the
monarch to calls
of the Church and possession of Perugia, Todi, Assisi, Spoleto,
Spello and Jesi.
went through the walls of Rome
on 29 September 1420, ready at you revenged Giovanna:
to advance on Napoli.Pretending it as peacemaker, Martino V. invited
the two pretenders to the throne to
peacefully resolve the controversy.
Angioino, already weakened from the changed relationship between Giovanna and Alfonso d’Aragona, Giacomo it made peace with Braccio
da Montone, and with the news of
death of the second wife, he married
hired Jacopo Caldora, Bartolomeo Colleoni and his son Francis and
moved from Benevento to the Aquila to liquidate again the hostile
his life by drowning generous. His
body was never found.
Born illegitimate son of Lucia Terziani 23 July 1401 in
San Miniato, and recognized
with the other brothers for a special grant of Queen Joan, Francesco spent
part of childhood in the lordship of
she dead two years after the
wedding, with baby
alongside his father at age twelve and exhibiting the qualities of a soldier
bold and powerful in 1419 in
Viterbo freed the parent from the encirclement tesogli by Braccio da
remaining wounded in the same year he went as viceroy in Calabria,
in the lands inherited by his wife,shown great political talent in Cosenza
in 1421 and led the defense of Luigi III d’Angiò, after the victory at the Aquila,
finally, was in the service of
Martino V to crush the aspirations of the Signore di Foligno Corrado
Trinci.He returned to Napoli after the father's death, marched against
Naples, which won for Giovanna after bribing the Governatore Caldora
Jacopo, whose daughter he married. With him he
Guido Torelli who credited to
Filippomaria Visconti of Milan in 1425 he accepted the conduct
Piccinino fighting against Carmarthen.
obtaining of the consideration of
the Visconti,who offered him the
1433 and 1435, in a succession of unscrupulous alliances that saw first,
to fight for in the Marca di
Ancona for the future father and then Vicar of Eugene IV,from which he was
promoted Gonfaloniere della Chiesa,
who, after long hesitation, 25
October finally broughtofficiate at the wedding with his daughter in the
church of San Sigismondo in Cremona.Soon after,
demands of Rene d'Anjou and
marchedricevendosi excommunication against the Aragonese and the
revocation of the standard-bearer.
expansion of Alfonso. The bonus was 8 November 1443 when it
defeated Sigismondo Malatesta
Piccinino and the
of Micheletto Attendolo on the Po : Francesco was appointed
Captano General di Milano.
August 13, 1447 while his son
moved from the Marches towards Lombardy, where the established Ambrosian
Republic would solve the issue
where the navy of Venice had
suffered a crushing humiliation by guided
the territories of Bergamo and Brescia to renounce to Crema and Ghiara d'Adda acquiring, by contrast, the control of Lodi, Brivio and Lecco and the rest against the
Aurea Repubblica Ambrosiana Autonoma.
merchants willing to support
the utopian setting up to put a bounty on the head of the Sforza of two
hundred thousand ducats,
Venice abandoned the alliance to
favor of the Republic.
of supplies crumbled to resistance
front: for hungry,
and the imperial eagle, the seal,
the sword and the keys.concluded the distinguished career of Leader, began
to Prince who for sixteen years he would prudently governed the fate of
the most prestigious European duchy. Immediately faced with the urgent
issues by appointing
and intellectual center, improving the road network, ordering the construction of the first hospital and entrusting the execution to the greatest architect
of the time of the Tuscan
Averlino said Filarete; gaining popularity
urged Rene d'Anjou against the
Aragonese in the Kingdom of Naples; reopened hostilities with the
Venetians who had betrayed him in
tackle even Luigi Gonzaga.
reconstruction of the Porta
Giovia,ordered the reconstruction
He died March 8, 1466: the whole, but remained strong heritage to their children Galeazzo Maria, Filippo Maria, Maria Sforza, Ludovico, Ottaviano, Ascanio, Ippolita, Elisabetta.
Was born ... another ... Lucifer: in fact cunning, cruel, dissolute,
ambitious, corrupt, vain and
greedy; son of the Francis and
engaged to the daughter of the
Marquis of Gonzaga, and then married Bona of Savoy, sister of Louis XI of
France, was given the name from his
to extend its influence over
At that time, favored the affirmation of Councillor Francis said Cicco Simonetta, to which granting privileges it they insulted the court and
Milan Milan, burdened with onerous
taxes, diverted from processes; by unspeakable tortures and executions;
Marliani Lucia's lover; expenses in 1472 a fortune to celebrate the
betrothal of his son as a child with the Duchess Isabella of Calabria; in 1473 gave lavish parties in honor of Cardinal Pietro Riario, in March of 1474 greeted with unprecedented magnificence of the King Matthias Corvinus
of Hungary, which gave ten
thousand sequins; squandered money
and Genoa, where he ordered the construction of ramparts that divide
the city into two parts, each
guarded by an armed garrison.
of the agreements between the
Republic and the Duchy: the crowd rose,
it sent armed units and it
made to arrest the notable Prospero Adorno
seven hundred ducats to Gentile,
trinceratosi with a
was directed to the Piedmont,
and Ferrara, the scene of events
become lord of Ferrara.
absence of his uncle, he
entered the city at the
30 March 1472 it dead Amedeo IX of
Savoy, leaving the eldest heir
aid of germana Galeazzo Maria
defeated of St Germain,
But it was already in place a
and sentenced to death: Carlo Visconti was quartered.
Galeazzo Maria left numerous offspring: Bona his wife,
sons Gian Galeazzo Maria, Maria Hermes; Biancamaria,
wife of Emperor Maximilian of
in particular.To redress the tensions, in February of 1477 he went to
Milan Ludovico Gonzaga and reconciled to the Duchesswith in-laws.In
Milan, peace returned, but in March following erupted in Genova where
the Fieschi and Campofregoso stirred up a revolt that forced
Governor Duca Giovanni Francesco Pallavicini. to re-establishthe order,
the energetic Simonetta ordered the
accepted, to the head of twelve
thousand men, 30 April 1477
headquarters of the Fieschi forcing them to surrender them and
returned to Milan. The Ducato meanwhile was permeated by an
atmosphere of intrigue and poisons
that harm the Minister,
Ascanio was relegated to Perugia, the only Philip stayed in Milan for extraneous to the facts; Donato del Conte died from injuries sustained
during his escape from prison in Monza; Ibletto Fieschi was arrested
to the border Asti, Roberto Sanseverino succeeded in placing himself
under the protection of the
was formally invested with the ducal
title in the Cattedrale of Milan.
causing the formation of two
alloys: one between
himself Doge against the Doria and Spinola, unrelated to the coup.
In its support from Asti they
Genoa with weapons, so she resorted o the strategy of making
concessions t to the opposition faction of the Baptist Campofregoso son
of Pietro. it prevailed sull'Adorno
and in November kicked him
elected Doge. In parallel, Sisto IV
pitted against the
without having been able to
conquer. Against them, then,
The war had ended. Thanks to the skill of Cicco Simonetta was peace
with the Helvetii.
On 27 July 1479 came the death of
he used the Tassino Antonio
Ferrara, favorite of Bona and enemy of Simonetta, a fictitious
simulation for reconciliation so that
the arrest of the Minister and
his son Antonio,
to Abbiate , when it was deemed safe, got rid of all potential enemies.
On October 7, confiscated goods, exiled Tassino Antonio and his father Gabriele; asked Simonetta, locked up in prisons Pavia,
forty thousand florins in
exchange for the release and,
The wife of the minister: a
Visconti, went mad.
Francis and Bona.
Ludovico il Moro
Ludovico moved adroitly between
Italian states, Milan became
dominant on the national political arena.
presence in the ducal court of Leonardo, Bramante and various Artists
and Writers, by runningmany works
civil engineering and military and economic recovery.
the expansionist impulses of Venice and to curb the hostility of the Neapolitan Aragonese related with their nephew, Ludovico sodalizzò
even with sovereign of France,
Charles VIII, and for him, with his sister
Milan Italy could find a single
identity, eventually turning to the cousins of beyond Alps begged a risk
but it paved the way for a greedy imperialism of foreign!
it was the first invaders of the Modern Age. If for Ludovico was the
end for Italy was the
beginning of four centuries of domination.
solemn fanfare announcing the proclamation to his uncle the
Duke of Milan.In the previous
January, meanwhile, it died Ferdinand of Naples, ascended to the throne
Alfonso that, as father of the
French crown,in turn related to Valentina Visconti and, therefore,
pretender to the same title.Without hesitation, proclaimed King of Naples
and Duke of Milan, Charles VIII entered to the Piemonte with the consent to
Savoia di Monferrato and pretended to accept the Lordship of the Moro
still in its in its possession, it placed put traps and pitfalls along the
way with Tuscany, destabilized to the position of Piero de 'Medici,
replaced by the republican
regime influenced by Girolamo Savonarola,
Venice andfrom Milan in an attempt
to spezzarne hegemony,
met Louis in Vercelli,
persuaded him to support it.
which claimed the legacy of
signing two agreements ambiguous: Il
Trattato di Marcoussins
and Aragon to Castile.
Pisans aware of not being able to conquer the city Toscana Ludovico overthrew the alliance with Venice and Florence it supported the
reconquest of Pisa to counting
of the support anti-French.
seeking revenge for theabout-face
Il Moro he repaired to Germany to
Maximilian of Hapsburg.
captured 10 April 1500 in Novara,
moved to France where
five decades of wars ended February
24 of 1525 when, after the
in fact the Duchy was ruled by foreigners: Milan had been ceded to the
French after the Battle of Marignano of 13 September 1515 and,
on the other hand, within two
decades the male line of the Dukes of the powerful successor to the
Visconti dynasty would die out.
My father's father was born in a
tiny village of Romagna
pushed their power to Bari But he himself had lowered the lights on the dynasty, wreaking havoc on Italy and its dukedom which had also been
able survive the pressures of
the emerging powers.
He was born as
(Cotignola, 21 October 1409 - 3
to Pesaro. In 1442 Assisi was in
command of the besieged troops
Alessandro Sforza was forced
(Pavia, April 5, 1472 )
Bianca Maria Visconti
Duchess of Milan
CAPITANO di VENTURA
Lucia Terziani from Marsciano,
James de Mailly French knight who
owned much land especially in Cosenza.
Moneta introdotta da Galeazzo Maria
Galeazzo Maria Sforza
December 26, 1476)
Agnese del Maino (... - Milan, 13
who died a few days after birth (1426).
Ferdinand of Aragon, Naples branch,
better known as
January 28, 1494),
Eleonora of Aragon,
Duchess of Ferrara, Modena and Reggio (Naples, 22 or June 23, 1450 -
Ercole I d'Este
(26 October 1431 – 15 June 1505)
Maximilian (Massimiliano) Sforza
He was imprisoned by the
returning French following their victory at the Battle of Marignano.
Ludovico Maria Sforza said the Moor
Beatrice d'Este (June 29, 1475 –
January 3, 1497),
in 1480, in order to cement an alliance, Ludovico Sforza formally asked Ercole d'Este to give him the hand of his daughter in marriage. Ludovico, who was then duke of Bari and regent to the duke of Milan, had originally requested a betrothal to Isabella, Beatrice's older sister, but because she was already promised to Francesco Gonzaga, Ercole offered him Beatrice instead.Il Moro made no objection to the arrangement and Beatrice was married to him in January 1491.
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